• 8TH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES: KEY TERMS

     

    Chapter 2 Section 1 The First Civilization of the Americans

    Glacier – Thick sheet of ice.

    Surplus – Extra; condition that exist when income exceeds spending.

    Causeway – A raised road made of packed earth.

    Quipu – Device made of cord or string with knots that stood for quantities; used by the Incans to keep accounts and records.

    Terrace – Wide shelf of land cut into the hillside.

    Culture – Entire way of life developed by a people.

    Adobe – Sun-dried brick.

    Pueblo – A town in the Spain Colonies; Anasazi Village.   

    Mound Builders – The name for a various north American cultures that built large earth mounds beginning about 3000 years ago.

     

     

    Chapter 2 Section 2 Native American Cultures

    Culture Area – A region in which people share a similar way of life.

    Tribe – A community of people who share common customs, language, and rituals.

    Diffusion – A process of spreading ideas from one culture to another.

    Pit House – Houses dug into the ground and covered with wood and skins.

    Potlatch – A ceremonial dinner held by a family to too gain status within a village by showing off it’s wealth.

    Kachina – Spirits who were represented by masked Native American dancers.

    Clan – A group of two or more related families.

    League of the Iroquois – 5 Iroquois nations formed an alliance to end fighting.

    Sachem – A council of 50 specially chosen tribal leaders

     

     

    Chapter 2 Section 3 Trade Networks of Africa and Asia

    First global age- era at beginning of 1400’s, when long-distance trade and travel increased dramatically.

    Islam- monotheistic religion founded by the prophet Muhammad in the early 600’s.

    Quran- sacred book of Islam.

    Silk Road- overland trade routes linking China to the Middle East.

    Caravan- group of people who travel together for safety.

    City-state- large town that has its own government and controls the surrounding countryside.

    Savanna- region of grasslands.

    Extended family- family group that includes grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles and cousins.

    Kinship- sharing a common ancestor.

     

     

    Chapter 2 Section 4 Tradition and Change in Europe

    Salvation- everlasting life.

    Missionary- person who tries to spread certain religious beliefs among a group of people.

    Direct democracy-form a government in which ordinary citizens have the power to govern.

    Republic- system of government in which citizens choose representatives to govern them.

    Feudalism-

    Manor- district ruled by a lord including the lord’s castle and the lands around it.

    Crusades- between 1100 and 1300, series of wars fought by Christians to control the Holy Land.

    Astrolabe- navigational instrument used to determine latitude.

    Renaissance- burst of learning in Europe from the late 1300’s to about 1600.

     

     

    Chapter 3 Section 1 An Era of Exploration

    Colony- group of people whole settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the government of their native land.

    Turing Point-

    Circumnavigate- travel all the way around the Earth

    Columbian Exchange- the global exchange of goods and ideas resulting from the encounter between the people of the eastern and western hemispheres.

     

     

    Chapter 3 Section 2 Spain Builds an Empire

    Conquistador- name for the Spanish explorers who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain

    Pueblo- a town in the Spanish colonies; on a Anasazi village.

    Presidio- fort where soldiers lived in the Spanish colonies.

    Mission- religious settlement run by Catholic priest and friars.

    Peninsulare- person from Spain who held a position of power in Spanish colony.

    Creole- person born in Spain’s American colonies to Spanish parents.

    Mestizo- in Spain’s American colonies, person of mixed Spanish and Indian background.

    Encomienda- land granted to Spanish settlers that included the right to demand labor of taxes to Native American’s.

    Plantation- large estate farmed by many workers.

     

     

    Chapter 3 Section 3 Colonizing North America

    Northwest Passage- a waterway through or around North America.

    Protestant Reformation- movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500’s, led to the creation of many different Christian churches.

    Coureur de bois- French colonist who lived in the woods as a fur trapper.

    Alliance- agreement between nations to aid and protect one another.

     

     

    Chapter 3 Section 4 Building the Jamestown Colony

    Charter- legal document giving certain rights to a person of company.

    Burgess- representative to the colonial Virginia government.

    House of burgesses- representative assembly in colonial Virginia.

    Representative government- political system in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them.

    Magna carta- signed in 1215, a British document that contained two basic ideas: monarchs themselves have to obey the laws the citizens have basic rights.

    Parliament- representative assembly in England.

     

     

    Chapter 3 Section 5 Seeking Religious Freedoms

    Pilgrims- in the 1600’s, English settlers who sought religious freedom in the Americas.

    Established church-  chosen religion of a state.

    Persecution- mistreatment or punishment of a group of people because of their beliefs.

    Mayflower compact- a 60 agreement for ruling the Plymouth colony.

    Precedent- act of decision that sets an example for others to follow.

    Thanksgiving- day at the end of the harvest season set aside by the pilgrims to give thanks to God.

     

     

    Chapter 4 Section 1 The New England Colonies

    Puritans- group of English Protestants who settled in the Massachusetts Bay colony.

    General court- elected representative assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

    Fundamental orders of Connecticut- a 1639 plan of government in the Puritan colony in Connecticut.

    Religious tolerance- willingness to let others practice their own beliefs.

    Sabbath- holy day of rest.

    Town meeting- meeting in the colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues.

     

     

    Chapter 4 Section 2 The Middle Colonies

    Patroon- owner of a large estate in a Dutch colony.

    Proprietary colony- English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment.

    Royal colony- colony under the direct control of the English crown.

    Quakers- protestants reformers who believe in the equality of all people.

    Pennsylvania Dutch- German speaking Protestants who settled in Pennsylvania.

    Cash crop- crop sold for money at market.

     

     

    Chapter 4 Section 3 The Southern Colonies

    Mason- Dixon line- boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland that divided the middle colonies from the southern colonies.

    Act of tolerance- a 1649 Maryland law the provided religious freedom for all Christians.

    Bacon’s rebellion- a 1676 raid led by national Bacon against the governor and Native Americans in Virginia.

    Indigo- plant used to make a valuable blue dye.

    Debtor- person who cannot pay money he or she owns.

    Slave code- laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.

    Racism- belief that one race is superior to another.

     

     

    Chapter 4 Section 4 Roots of Self-Government

    Mercantilism- theory that a nations economic strength came from keeping a strict control over its colony trade.

    Export- trade product sent to markets outside of country.

    Import- trade product brought into a country.

    Navigation acts- series of English laws in the 1650’s that regulated trade between England and its colonies.

    Yankee- nickname for New England merchants who dominated colony trade.

    Triangular trade- colony trade route between New England, the west and east, and Africa.

    Legislature- group of people who have the power to make laws.

    Glorious revolution- in 1688 movement that brought William and Mary to the thrown of England and strengthened the rights of English citizens.

    Bill of rights- written list of freedom the government promises to protect.

    English bill of rights- a 1689 document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens.

     

     

    Chapter 4 Section 5  Life in the Colonies

    Gentry- highest social class in the thirteenth English colonies.

    Middle class- In the thirteen English colonies, a class that included skilled craft workers, farmers, and some trades people.

    Indentured servant- person who agreed to work without wedges for a period of time in exchange for passage to the colonies.

    Great awakening- religious movement in the English colonies in the early 1700’s.

    Public school- school supported by taxes.

    Tutor- private teacher.

    Apprentice- Person who learned a trade or craft from a master.

    Dame school- school run by a women, usually in her own home.

    Enlightenment- movement in Europe in the 1600’s and 1700’s that emphasized the use of reason.

    Libel- act of publishing a statement that may unjustly damage a person’s reputation.

     

     

    Chapter 5 Section 1 The French and Indian War

    French and Indian war- a war that took place from 1754 to 1763 that led to the end of French power in North America.

    Albany Plan of Union- proposal by Ben Franklin to create one government for the 13 colonies.

    Plains of Abraham- a field near Quebec; site of a major British victory over the French and Indian war.

    Treaty of Paris-  a 1763 agreement between British and France that ended the French and Indian war peace treaty between the united states and Brittan ratified in 1783, that recognized the United Stated as an independent nation.

     

     

    Chapter 5 Section 2  Turmoil over Taxation

    Pontiac’s war- a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of the Indian lands in the great lakes area.

    Proclamation of 1763- law forbidding English colonist to settle west of the Appellation Mountains.

    Stamp act- a 1765 law that placed new duties on legal documents and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice.

    Petition- formal written request to someone In authority that is signed by a group of people.

    Boycott- to refuse to buy or use certain goods or services.

    Repeal- to cancel

    Townshend acts- laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, led and tea.

    Writ of assistance- legal document that allowed British customs officials to inspect a ships cargo without giving a reason.

    Boston massacre- a 1770 conflict in which five colonists were killed by British troops.

    Committee of correspondence-  letter writing campaign that became a major tool of protest in the colonies.

     

     

    Chapter 5 Section 3 From Protest to Revolution

    Tea act- a 1773 law that let the British east India Company bypass tea merchants and sell directly to colonist.

    Boston tea party- a 1773 protest in which colonist dressed as Indians and dumped British tea into Boston Harbor.

    Intolerable acts- series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea parties.

    Quebec act- law that set up a government for Canada and protected the French Catholics.

    First continental congress- In 1774, meeting of delegates from 12 colonies in Philadelphia.

    Militia-army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency.

    Minuteman- colonial militia volunteers who were prepared to fight at a minute’s notice.

    Battles of Lexington and Concord- in 1775, conflicts between Massachusetts’s colonist and British soldiers that started the Revolutionary war.

     

     

    Chapter 6 Section 1: Fighting Begins in the North

    Olive Branch Petition-  peace petition sent to King George colonial delegates after the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

    Green Mountain Boys- Vermont colonial militia led by Ethan Allen that made a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga.

    Continental Army- army established by the Second Continental Congress to fight the British.

    Patriot- colonists who favored war against Britain.

    Loyalist- colonists who remained loyal to Britain.

    Battle of Bunker Hill- in 1775, first major battle of the Revolution.

    Blockade- the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.

    Mercenary- soldier who fights merely for pay, often for a foreign country.

     

     

    Chapter 6 Section 2 The Colonies Declare Independence

    Common sense-  a 1776 essay by Thomas Paine that urged the colonies to declare independence.

    Traitor- person who betrays his or her country.

    Declaration of Independence- a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation.

    Preamble- introduction to a declaration, constitution, or other official document.

    Natural rights- rights that belong to all people from birth.

     

     

    Chapter 6 Section 3 Struggles in the Middle States

    Battle of Long Island- a 1776 battle in New York in which more then 1,400 Americans were killed, wounded or captured.

    Battle of Trenton- a 1776 battle in New Jersey in which George Washington’s troops captured a Hessian encampment.

    Battle of Saratoga- in 1777, the first major American victory in the Revolution.

    Ally- Nation that works with another nation for a common purpose.

    Cavalry- Troops on horseback.

    Valley Forge- Pennsylvania site of Washington’s Continental Army and encampment during the winter of 1777-1778.

     

     

    Chapter 6 Section 5 Winning the War In the South

    Battle of Cowpens- a 1781 battle in South Carolina where Americans won an important victory over the British.

    Guerrilla- fighter that uses hit-and-run attacks.

    Siege- military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender.

    Battle of Yorktown- 1781 American victory in Virginia that forced the British to surrender.

    Treaty of Paris- a 1763 agreement between British and France that ended the French and Indian war peace treaty between the United States and Britain ratified in 1783, that recognized the United States as an independent nation.

    Ratify- to approve.

     

     

    Chapter 7 Secition 1 A Loose Confederation

    Constitution- Document that sets out the laws, principals, organization, and the process of government.

    Bill of Rights- Written list of freedoms the government promises to protect.

    Articles of confederation- First American Constitution passed in 1777, which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states.

    Cede- to give up

    Currency- money

    Land Ordinance of 1785- law setting up a system for settling the Northwest Territory.

    Northwest Ordinance- A 1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory.

    Depression- period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises.

    Shay’s Rebellion- A 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to high taxes.

     

     

    Chapter 7 Section 2 The Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention- Gathering of state representatives on May 25th, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation.

    Virginia Plan – Plan at the Constitutional Convention that called for a strong national government with 3 branches and two-chamber legislature.

    Legislative Branch- Branch of government that passes laws.

    Executive Branch- Branch of government that carries out laws.

    Judicial Branch- Branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly.

    New Jersey Plan- Plan at the Constitutional Convention, favored by smaller states that called for three branches of government with a single chamber legislature.

    Compromise- settlement in which each side gives up some of it’s demands in order to reach an agreement.

    Great Compromise- Plan at the Constitutional Convention that settled the differences between the large and small states.

    Three-Fifths Compromise- Agreement at the Constitutional Convention that three fifths of the slaves in any state be counted in its population.

     

     

    Chapter 7 Section 3 Ideas Behind the Constitution

    Founding Fathers- Leaders who laid the groundwork for the United States.

    Republic- System of government in which citizens choose representatives to govern them.

    Dictatorship- Government in which one person or a small group holds complete authority.

    Magna Carta- signed in 1215, a British document that contained two basic ideas: monarchs themselves have to obey the laws and the citizens have basic rights.

    English Bill of Rights- A 1689 document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens.

    Habeas Corpus- The right not to be held in prison without first being charges with a specific Crime.

    Separation of Powers- Principle by which the powers of government are divided among separate branches.

     

     

    Chapter 7 Section 4 Ratification and the Bill of Rights

    Federalists- A supporter of a strong federal government.

    Anti-Federalist- People who opposed the Constitutional and a strong national government.

    The Federalist Papers- Series of essays by federalist James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of ratifying the Constitution.

    Amend- A Change

    Bill of Rights- First ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

     

     

    Chapter 8 Section 1 Goals and Principles of the Constitution

    Preamble- Introduction to a declaration, constitution or other official document.

    Domestic Tranquility- Peace and order at home

    Civilian- Nonmilitary

    General welfare- Well-being of all the citizens of a nation

    Liberty- freedom

    Articles- the main body of the Constitution, which establishes the framework for the United States government.

    Popular sovereignty- In the mid-1800’s , a term referring to the idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.

    Limited government- A principle of the United States Constitution that states the government has only the powers that the constitution gives it.

    Checks and balances- A principle of the United States Constitution that gives each branch of government the power to check the other branches.

    Federalism- A principle of the United States Constitution that establishes the division of power between the federal government andthe states.

     

     

    Chapter 8 Section 2 How the Federal Government Works

    House of Representatives- The larger of the two bodies that make up the legislative branch of the United States government.

    Senate- Smaller of the two bodies that make up the legislative branch of the United States government.

    Bill- proposed law.

    Electoral college- Group of electors from every state who meet every four years to vote for the president and the vice president of the United States.

    Supreme Court- highest court in the United States established by the Constitution.

    Appeal- to ask that a decision be reviewed by a higher court.

    Unconstitutional- not permitted by the constitution.

    Veto- to reject, as when the President rejects a law passed by Congress.

    Override- to overrule, as when Congress overrules a presidential veto.

    Impeach- to bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official.

     

     

     

    Chapter 8 Section 3 Changing the Constitution

    First Amendment- amendment to the United States Constitution that safe- guards basic individual liberties.

    Second Amendment- amendment to the United States Constitution related to the right to bear arms.

    Incriminate- to give evidence against.

    Civil- relating to lawsuits involving the private rights of individuals.

    Civil war Amendments- the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution.

    Nineteenth Amendment- a 1919 amendment to the United States Constitution that gives women the right to vote.

    Twenty-sixth Amendment- amendment to the United States Constitution that lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18.

     

     

    Chapter 8 Section 4 State and Local Governments

    Constitutional initiative- citizens can act directly to change the constitution.

    Infrastructure- system of roads, bridges, and tunnels.

    Local government- government on the county, parish, city, town, village, or district level.

     

     

    Chapter 8 Section 5 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

    Citizen- person who owes loyalty to a particular nation and is entitled to all its rights and protections.

    Naturalize- to complete the official process for becoming a citizen.

    Immigrant- person who enters another country in order to settle there.

    Resident alien- non citizen living in the country.

    Civic virtue- the willingness to work for the good of the nation or community even at great sacrifice.

    Patriotism- feeling of love and devotion toward one’s country.

     

     

    Chapter 9 Section 1 Washington Takes Office

    Inauguration- ceremony in which the President officially takes the oath of office.

    Precedent- act or decision that sets an example for others to follow.

    Cabinet- group of officials who head government departments and advise the President.

    Judiciary Act- a 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation.

    National debt- total sum of money that a government owes to others.

    Bond- certificate that promises to repay money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date.

    Speculator- someone who invests in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit.

    Bank of the United States- bank set up in 1791 to hold government deposits and to issue paper money to pay government bills.

    Tariff- tax on foreign goods brought into a country.

    Whiskey Rebellion- a 1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States.

     

     

     

    Chapter 9 Section 2 Creating a Foreign Policy

    French Revolution- a 1789 rebellion in France that ended the French monarchy for a time.

    Foreign policy- actions that a nation takes in relation to other nations.

    Neutral- not taking sides in a conflict.

    Neutrality Proclamation- a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict.

    Jay’s Treaty- a 1795 agreement between Britain and the United States that called for Britain to pay damages for seized American ships and to give up forts it still held in the West.

    Farewell Address- final official speech of Presidents as they exit office.

     

     

    Chapter 9 Section 3 Political Parties Emerge

    Faction- opposing group within a party.

    Unconstitutional – not permitted by the Constitution.

    Democratic Republican- supporter of Thomas Jefferson.

    Federalist- supporter of a strong federal government.

     

     

    Chapter 9 Section 4 The Second President

    XYZ Affair- a 1797 French attempt to bribe the United States by demanding money before discussing French seizure of neutral American ships.

    Frigate- fast-sailing ship with many guns.

    Alien and Sedition acts- in 1798, Federalist-supported laws that permitted the President to expel foreigners, made it harder for immigrants to become citizens, and allowed for citizens to be fined or jailed if they criticized the government or its officials.

    Sedition- stirring up rebellion against a government.

    Nullify – to cancel a law passed by the federal government.

    Kentucky and Virginia resolutions- declarations passed in 1798 and 1799 that claimed that each state has the right to decide whether a federal law is constitutional.

    States’ rights- the right of states to limit the power of the federal government.

     

     

    Chapter 10 Section 1 A Republican Takes Office

    Democratic – ensuring that all people have the same rights.

    Laissez faire- idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.

    Free market- economic system in which goods and services are exchanged with little regulation.

    Marbury v. Madison- an 1803 court case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional.

    Judicial review- power of the Supreme Court to decide whether the acts of a President or laws passed by Congress are constitutional.

     

     

    Chapter 10 Section 2 The Louisiana Purchase

    Pinckney Treaty- a 1795 agreement with Spain that let Americans ship their goods down the Mississippi River and store them in New Orleans.

    Louisiana Purchase- vast territory between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, purchased from France in 1803.

    Expedition- long voyage of exploration.

    Continental divide- mountain ridge that separates river systems flowing toward opposite sides of a continent.

     

     

    Chapter 10 Section 3 New Threats From Overseas

    Tribute- bribe

    Impressment- practice of forcing people into military service.

    Embargo- ban on trade

    Embargo Act- an 1807 law that imposed a total ban on foreign trade.

    Smuggling- importing or exporting goods in violation of trade laws

    Non-intercourse Act- an 1809 law that allowed Americans to carry on trade with all nations except Britain and France.

     

     

    Chapter 10 Section 4 The Road War

    Treaty of Greenville- treaty signed by some Native Americans in 1795, giving up land that would later become part of Ohio.

    Confederation- league of independent states or nations.

    Battle of Tippecanoe- battle over white settlement in the Indiana Territory.

    War Hawks- members of Congress from the South and the West who called for war with Britain prior to the War of 1812.

    Nationalism- excessive pride in one’s nation.

     

     

    Chapter 10 Section 5 The War of 1812

    Battle of Lake Erie- In the War of 1812, an American victory led by Oliver Perry against the British.

    Battle of New Orleans- At the end of the War of 1812, a battle between British and American forces that ended in an American victory.

    Hartford Convention- gathering of New Englanders to protest the War of 1812 by threatening to secede from the Union.

    Treaty of Ghent-peace treaty signed by Britain and the United States at the end of the War of 1812.

     

     

    Chapter 11 Section 1 The Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution- gradual process by which machines replace hand tools.

    Spinning jenny- machine developed in 1764 that could spin several threads at once.

    Capital- money raised for a business venture.

    Capitalist- person who invests in a business to make a profit.

    Factory system- method of producing goods that brought workers and machinery together in one place.

    Interchangeable parts- identical, machine-made parts for a tool or a instrument.

    Lowell girl- young women who worked in the Lowell Mills in Massachusetts during the Industrial Revolution.

    Urbanization- Movement of population from farms to cities.

     

     

    Chapter 11 Section 2 Americans Move Westwards

    Flatboat- boat with a flat bottom used for transporting heavy loads on inland waterways.

    Turnpike- Road built by a private company that charges  toll to use it.

    Lancaster Turnpike- Road built in the 1790’s by a private company, linking Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania

    Corduroy road- Road made of logs.

    National road- First federally funded national road project, begun in 1811.

    Clermont- Steamboat built in 1807 by Robert Fulton; First steam boat to be commercially successful in American waters.

    Erie canal- artificial waterway opened in 21825 linking Lake Erie to the Hudson River. 

     

     

    Chapter 11 Section 3 Unity and Division

    Sectionalism- Loyalty to a state or section rather than the whole country.

    American System- program for economic growth promoted by Henry Clay in the early 1800’s; called for high tariffs on imports.

    Internal improvements- improvements to roads, bridges and canals.

    McCulloch v. Maryland- An 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states had no right to interfere with the federal institutions within their borders.

    Gibbons v. Ogden- An 1814 case in which the Supreme Court upheld the power of the federal government to regulate commerce.

    Interstate commerce- business that crosses state lines.

     

     

    Chapter 11 Section 4 New Nations in the Americas

    Creole- person born in Spain’s American colonies to Spanish parents.

    Republic of Great Colombia- Independent state composed of the present day nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama established in 1819.

    United Provinces of Central America- Federation established in 1823, containing the present day nations of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

    Negro Fort- Settlement of fugitive African American slaves in the Spanish of Florida.

    Monroe Doctrine- President Monroe’s Foreign policy statement warning European nations not to interfere in Latin America.

    Intervention- Direct involvement.

     

     

    Chapter 12 Section 1 A New Era in Politics

    Suffrage- The right to vote.

    Majority- More than half.

    Whigs- Members of the John Quincy Adams’s former National Republican Party.

    Democrats- supporters of Andrew Jackson; included frontier farmers and factory workers.

    Caucus- private meeting; often a political meeting.

    Nominating convention- meeting at which a political party chooses a candidate.

     

     

    Chapter 12 Section 2 Jackson in the White House

    Spoils system- practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs.

     “kitchen cabinet”-  group of unofficial advisers to Andrew Jackson who met with him in the white house kitchen.

     

     

     

    Chapter 12 Section 3 A New Crisis

    States’ rights- the right of states to limit the power of federal government.

    Nullification- idea that a state has the right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law that the state leasers consider to be unconstitutional.

    Nullification act- act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal.

    Indian Removal Act- law passed in 1830 that forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River.

    Trail of Tears- forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi during which thousands of Cherokees died.

    Seminole War- conflict that began in Florida in 1817 when the Seminoles resisted removal.

    Depression- period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises.

    Mudslinging- the use of insults to attack opponent’s reputation.

     

     

    Chapter 13 Section 1 Oregon Country

    Oregon Country-  term used in the 1800’s for the region that includes present-day Oregon, Washington, Idaho,  and parts of Wyoming, Montana and Canada.

    Mountain man- trapper who explored and hunted in Oregon Territory in the early 1800’s.

    Rugged individualist- person who follows his or her independent course in life.

    Rendezvous-yearly meeting where mountain men traded furs.

    Oregon Trail- route to Oregon used by wagon trains in the 1800’s.

     

     

    Chapter 13 Section 2 The Republic of Texas

    Dictator- s ruler with absolute power and authority.

    Tejano- person of Mexican descent born in Texas.

    Alamo- old Spanish mission in Texas where Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged Texans in 1836.

    Siege- military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender.

    Battle of San Jacinto- an 1836 battle between Texans and Mexicans during the Texas war for independence from Mexico.

    Lone Star Republic- nickname for Texas after it won independence from Mexico in 1836.

    Annex- to add on or take over.

     

     

    Chapter 13 Section 3 California and the Southwest

    New Mexico Territory- huge region in the Southwest owned by Mexico in the 1800’s.

    Santa Fe Trail- route to Santa Fe, New Mexico, that was used by traders in the 1800’s.

    Self-sufficient- able to produce enough for one’s own needs.

    Vaquero- Spanish or Mexican cowhand.

    Manifest Destiny- 1800’s belief that American had the right to spread across the continent.

     

     

    Chapter 13 Section 4 The Mexican War

    Bear Flag Republic- nickname for California after in declared independence from Mexico in 1846.

    Chapultepec- fort outside of Mexico city; site of an 1847 battle between the United States and Mexico.

    Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo- an 1848 treaty in which Mexico gave up California and New Mexico to the United States for $15 million.

    Cede- to give up.

    Mexican Cession- Mexican Territories of California and New Mexico given to the United States ion 1848.

    Gadsden Purchase- strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico for which the United States paid Mexico $10 million in 1853.

     

     

    Chapter 13 Section 5 Americans Rush West

    Mormons- members of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith in 1813

    Nauvoo- Mormon community built on the banks of the Mississippi River in Illinois in the 1840’s.

    Refuge- place where one is safe from persecution.

    Sutter’s Mill- location where gold was discovered in California in 1848, setting off the gold rush.

    Forty-niner- one of the more than 80,000 people who join the gold rush to California in 1849.

    Vigilante- self-appointed enforcer of the law.

    Lynch- for a mob to illegally seize and execute someone.

     

     

    Chapter 14 Section 1 Industry in the North

    Telegraph- Communications device that sends electrical signals along a wire.

    Locomotive- engine that pulls a railroad train.

    Clipper ship- fast – sailing ship of the mid- 1800s.

     

     

    Chapter 14 Section 2 Life in the North

    Artisan- skilled worker

    Trade union- association of trade workers formed to gain higher wages and better working conditions.

    Strike- refusal by workers to do their jobs until their demands are met.

    Famine- severe food shortage

    Nativist- wanted to preserve the country for native- born, white citizens.

    Know-Nothing-party- political party of the 1850’s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant.

    Discrimination- policy that denies equal rights to certain groups of people.

     

     

    Chapter 14 Section 3 Cotton Kingdom in the South

    Boom- period of swift economic growth.

    Cultivate- to prepare and use land for planting crops.

     

     

    Chapter 14 Section 4 Life in the South

    “cottonocracy”- name for the wealthy planters who made their money from cotton in the mid- 1800s.

    Slave codes- laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.

    Extended family- family groups that include grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles and cousins.

     

     

    Chapter 15 Section 1 The Reforming Spirit

    Social reform- an organized attempt to improve what is unjust or imperfect in society.

    Predestination- protestant idea that God decided in advance which people would attain salvation after death.

    Great Awakening- wide-spread religious movement in the United States in the early 1800s.

    Revival- large outdoor religious meeting.

    Debtor- person who cannot pay money he or she owes.

    Temperance movement- campaign against alcohol consumption.

     

     

    Chapter 15 Section 2 Opposing Slavery

    American Colonization Society- early 1800s organization that proposed to end slavery by helping African Americans move to Africa.

    Abolitionist- person who wanted to end slavery.

    The Liberator- most influential antislavery newspaper; begun by William Lloyd Garrison.

    Underground Railroad- network of abolitionists who secretly helped slaves escape to freedom.

     

     

    Chapter 15 Section 3 A Call for Women’s Rights

    Seneca Falls Convention- an 1848 meeting at which leaders of the women’s right movement called for equal rights for women.

    Women’s rights movement- organized campaign to win property, education, and other rights for women.

     

     

    Chapter 15 Section 4 American Art and Literature

    Hudson River School-group of American artist who painted landscapes of New York, Hudson River Valley in the mid-1800s.

    Transcendentalist- New England writers and thinkers who believed that the most important truths in life transcended, or went beyond, human reason.

    Individualism- concept that stresses the importance of each individual.

    Civil disobedience- idea that people have a right to disobey laws that consider to be unjust, if their consciences demand it.

     

     

    Chapter 16 Section 1 Slavery in the Territories

    Missouri Compromise- agreement, proposed in 1819 by Henry Clay, to keep the number of slave and free states equal.

    Wilmot Proviso- law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the United States form Mexico.

    Popular sovereignty- in the mid-1800’s, a term referring to the idea that each territory could decide for  itself whether or not to allow slavery.

    Free-Soil party- bipartisan antislavery party founded in the United States in 1848 t keep slavery out of the western territories.

     

     

    Chapter 16 Section 2 The Compromise of 1850

    Secede- to withdraw from membership in a group.

    Fugitive- runaway

    Civil war- war between people of the same country.

    Compromise of 1850- agreement over slavery by which California joined the Union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed.

    Fugitive Slave Act- law passed in 1850 that required all citizens to aid in the capture of runaway slaves.

    Uncle Tom’s Cabin- an 1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe written to show the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave.

     

     

    Chapter 16 Section 3 The Crisis Deepens

    Kansas- Nebraska Act- an 1854 law that established the territories of Nebraska and Kansas, giving the settlers the right of popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery.

    Border Ruffians- proslavery bands from Missouri who often battled antislavery forces in Kansas.

    Guerrilla warfare- the use of hit-and –run tactics.

    Lawsuit- legal case brought to settle a dispute between a person or group.

    Dred Scott v. Sandford- an 1857 Supreme Court cast that brought into question the federal power over slavery in the territories.

     

     

    Chapter 16 Section 4 The Republican Party Emerges

    Republican Party- political party established in the United States in 1854 with the goal of keeping slavery out of the western territories.

    Arsenal- place where guns are stored.

    Treason- action against one’s country.

    Martyr- person who dies for his or her own beliefs.

     

     

    Chapter 16 Section 5 A Nation Divides

    Unamendable- unable to change

     

     

    Chapter 17 Section 1 The Conflict Takes Shape

    Border state- slave state that remained in the Union during the Civil War.

    Martial law- rule by the army instead of the elected government

     

     

     

    Chapter 17 Section 2 No Easy Victory

    Battle of Bull Run- first major battle of the Civil War; fought in Virginia in 1861.

    Virginia- ironclad warship used by the Confederates to break the Union block-ade.

    Monitor- ironclad Union warship.

    Battle of Antietam- an 1862 Civil War battle in Maryland.

    Battle of Fredericksburg- an 1862 Civil War battle in Virginia; one of the Union’s worst defeats.

    Battle of Chancellorsville- an 1863 Civil War battle in Virginia; important victory for the Confederacy.

    Battle of Shiloh- an 1862 Civil War battle in Tennessee that ended in a Union victory.

     

     

    Chapter 17 Section 3 A Promise of Freedom

    Emancipate- to set free.

    Emancipation Proclamation- Lincoln’s 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy.

    54th Massachusetts regiment- African American unit in the Union Army.

    Fort Wagner- fort in South Carolina that was the site of an attack by the African American 54th Massachusetts Regiment in 1863.

     

     

    Chapter 17 Section 4 Hardships of War

    Copperhead- group of farmers who pool their money to buy seeds and tools wholesale.

    Draft- law that requires people of a certain age to enlist in the military.

    Habeas corpus- the right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime.

    Income tax- a tax on people’s earnings.

    Inflation- a rise in prices and a decrease in the value of money.

    Profiteer- person who takes advantage of a crisis to make money.

     

     

    Chapter 17 Section 5 The War Ends

    Siege- military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender.

    Battle of Gettysburg- an 1863 Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended a Confederate invasion of the North.

    Pickett’s charge- failed Confederate charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.

    Gettysburg’s Address- speech made by President Lincoln in 1863 after the Battle of Gettysburg.

    Total war- all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat.

    Appomattox Court House- Virginia town that was the site of the Confederate surrender in 1865.

     

     

    Chapter 18 Section 1 Early Steps to Reunion

    Freedmen- men and women who had been slaves.

    Reconstruction- rebuilding of the South after the Civil War.

    Ten Percent Plan- Lincoln’s plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States.

    Amnesty- government pardon.

    Wade-Davis Bill- an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office to anyone who had volunteered to fight for the Confederacy.

    Freedmen’s Bureau- government agency founded during Reconstruction to help former slaves.

    Thirteenth Amendment- an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery through out the nation.

     

     

    Chapter 18 Section 2 Radical Reconstruction

    Black codes- Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War.

    Radical Republican- member of Congress during Reconstruction who wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to vote.

    Fourteenth Amendment- an 1868 amendment to the United States Constitution that guarantees equal protection of the laws.

    Radical Reconstruction- period beginning in 1867, when the Republicans, who had control in both houses of Congress, took charge of Reconstruction.

    Reconstruction Act- an 1867 law that threw out the southern sate governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

    Impeach- to bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official.

    Fifteenth Amendment- an 1869 amendment to the United States Constitution that forbids any state to deny African Americans the right to vote because of a race.

     

     

    Chapter 18 Section 3 The South Under Reconstruction

    Scalawag- white southerner who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction.

    Carpetbagger- uncomplimentary nick-name for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War.

    Conservatives- during Reconstruction, white southerners who resisted change.

    Ku Klux Klan- secret society organized in the South after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence.

    Sharecropper- person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop.

     

     

    Chapter 18 Section 4 The End of Reconstruction

    Poll tax- tax required before a person can vote.

    Literacy test- examination to see if a person can read and write; used in the past to restrict voting rights.

    Grandfather clause- law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867.

    Segregation- legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences.

    Jim Crow laws- laws that separated people of different races in public places in the South.

    Plessy v. Ferguson- an 1896 court case in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public facilities was legal as long as the facilities were equal.

     “New South”- term to describe the South in the late 1800’s when efforts were made to expand the economy by building up industry.